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Full text of "Monthly performance report : Alpha Construction Co"

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SOLAR/ 1034- 79/03 

Monthly 

Performance 

Report 



ALPHA CONSTRUCTION CO. 
MARCH 1979 




^kll.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 

ALPHA CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

MARCH 1979 

I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

The Alpha Construction Company site is a single-family residence in Canton, 
Ohio. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic 
hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors 
with a gross area of 428 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 
37 degrees to the horizontal. Air is the transfer medium that delivers solar 
energy from the collector array to storage and to the space heating and hot 
water loads. Solar energy is stored in the basement in a 51 0-cubic-foot bin 
containing 50,100 pounds of rock. The bin has concrete block walls and 
polyurethane insulation. Preheated city water is stored in an 80-gallon 
preheat storage tank and supplied, on demand, to a conventional 52-gallon DHW 
tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating load, a 
heat pump in the air-handling unit provides auxiliary energy for space heating. 
Similarly, an electrical heating element in the DHW tank provides auxiliary 
energy for water heating. The system, shown schematically in Figure 1, has 
four modes of solar operation. 

Mode 1 - Col lector-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when the collector 
is operating, a space heating demand exists, and the plenum temperature at 
the top of storage is above the minimum value suitable for supplying heat to 
the house. Heated air is circulated through the house by the air-handling 
unit before being returned to the collector. 

Mode 2 - Collector-to-Storage : This mode activates when the collector is 
operating and there is either no demand for space heating or the plenum 
temperature at the top of storage is below the minimum value for supplying 
heat to the house. 

Mode 3 - Storage-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when there is a 
demand for space heating, and the plenum temperature at the top of storage is 
above the minimum value for supplying heat to the house. The fan in the air- 
handling unit draws air from the bin, circulating it through the house and 
back to storage. 

Mode 4 - Domestic Water Preheating : This mode activates when the temperature 
at the top of the collector indicates a minimum value for hot water heating, 
which must be above the plenum temperature at the bottom of storage. 

II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 

INTRODUCTION 

The site was unoccupied during the month of March; however, the solar energy 
system operated continuously during the month. Solar energy satisfied 14 percent 



M53 






111 




of the space heating requirements. The solar energy system provided an 
electrical energy expense of 0.35 million Btu. 

WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 
15.2 million Btu for a daily average of 1141 Btu per square foot. This was 
nearly identical to the estimated average daily solar radiation for this 
geographical area during March of 1135 Btu per square foot for a south-facing 
plane with a tilt of 37 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient 
temperature during March was 41 °F as compared with the long-term average for 
March of 36 J F. The number of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 
65°F reference) was 757, as compared with the long-term average of 893. 

THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

System - During March the solar energy system performed poorer than expected. 
The expected performance was determined from a modified f-chart analysis using 
measured weather and subsystem loads as inputs. Solar energy collected was 
4.4 million Btu versus an estimated 3.0 million Btu. Solar energy used by 
the system was estimated by assuming that all energy collected would be 
applied to the load. Actual solar energy used was 0.51 million Btu. System 
total solar fraction was 14 percent versus an estimated 100 percent. 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of March was 15.2 million Btu. During the period the collector loop 
was operating the total insolation amounted to 13.0 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of March was 4.4 million Btu, resulting 
in a collector array efficiency of 29 percent, based on total incident insolation. 
Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 4.1 million Btu, 
while solar energy delivered from the collector array directly to the loads 
amounted to 0.14 million Btu. Energy loss during transfer from the collector 
array to storage and loads was 0.16 million Btu. This loss represented 4 percent 
of the energy collected. Operating energy required by the collector loop was 
0.29 million Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 4.1 million Btu. There were 
0.37 million Btu delivered from storage to the space heating subsystem. Energy 
loss from storage was 3.8 million Btu. This loss represented 91 percent of the 
energy delivered to storage. The storage efficiency was 9 percent: This is 
calculated as the ratio of the sum of the energy removed from storage and the 
change in stored energy, to the energy delivered to storage. The average 
storage temperature for the month was 93°F. 

DHW Load - Because the home was unoccupied in March, there was no requirement 
for hot water. A total of 0.14 million Btu of solar energy was used to heat 
the water in the preheat tank. The DHW subsystem consumed a total of 0.21 
million Btu of operating energy, resulting in an energy expense of 0.21 million 
Btu. An additional 0.31 million Btu of auxiliary electrical energy was used 
by the hot water tank to maintain the temperature. The average temperature 
of the water in the DHW tank was 119°F. 



Space Heating Load - The space heating requirement for the unoccupied home 
during March was 2.6 million Btu. The solar energy system provided 0.37 million 
Btu or 14 percent of this requirement. The remaining load of 2.2 million Btu 
was satisfied by an auxiliary electrical heat pump and an electrical heating 
element at an electrical energy consumption of 0.79 million Btu. The space 
heating subsystem consumed an additional 0.44 million Btu of operating energy. 
A net electrical energy savings of 0.14 million Btu was obtained from the 
solar portion of the space heating subsystem. 

OBSERVATIONS 

The solar energy site was unoccupied during March and presented a minimum 
space heating load due to a thermostat set at 57°F, except during periods of 
open house. The daily average insolation was nearly identical to the long-term 
average for March, while the average temperature was 5°F warmer than the long- 
term average. Only 0.37 million Btu of the collected solar energy was trans- 
ferred to heat the conditioned space in a controlled manner. 

There was an uncontrolled solar energy escape of 3.8 million Btu into the 
conditioned space and outside environment which caused storage to lose the 
rest of the collected solar energy. 

The DHW preheat subsystem expended more operating energy than the amount of 
solar energy transferred to the DHW preheat tank. The configuration of the 
DHW subsystem preheat loop permits solar energy transfer to the preheat tank 
only during times when collection is occurring. A separate air blower is 
required by this subsystem which adds significantly to operating costs. 
Frequently the heated air from the collector at the beginning or end of the 
collection period is cooler than the temperature of the water in the preheat 
tank. The operation of the preheat loop which is independent of the water 
temperature in the tank extracts energy from the tank during these periods. 
During periods of heating from storage, an induced air flow occurs through the 
DHW preheat loop. A portion of the unmeasurable energy loss from storage may 
escape through this air path. During the cooling season the storage subsystem 
must be operated in order to operate the DHW preheat subsystem. Energy that 
is not utilized by the DHW subsystem is collected in storage. Energy losses 
from storage to the -conditioned space add to the cooling loads and reduce any 
savings obtained by the DHW subsystem. 

ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system incurred a total electrical energy expense of 0.35 
million Btu. The space heating subsystem provided a savings of 0.14 million 
Btu, but this was eliminated due to the expense of operating the DHW subsystem 
(0.21 million Btu) and the collection subsystem (0.29 million Btu). 

III. ACTION STATUS 

Boeing conducted a preliminary air-mapping survey in October which revealed 
significant leaks in the energy collection and storage subsystems. Sealing 
the accessible leaks would only provide minimal improvement. 



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